Alzheimer’s disease is among the most devastating human brain disorders of

Alzheimer’s disease is among the most devastating human brain disorders of seniors humans. placebo-controlled parallel-group research measuring performance-based tests of cognitive function activities of daily behavior and living. Cholinesterase inhibitors including donepezil tacrine rivastigmine and galantamine will be the suggested treatment of cognitive disruption in sufferers with Alzheimer’s disease. The role of estrogen replacement anti-inflammatory agents and antioxidants is needs and controversial further study. Antidepressants antipsychotics mood stabilizers anxiolytics and hypnotics are used for the treatment of behavioral disturbance. Future directions in the research and treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease include: applying functional brain imaging techniques in early diagnosis and evaluation of treatment efficacy; development of new classes of medications working on PHA-680632 different neurotransmitter systems (cholinergic glutamatergic etc) both for the treatment of the cognitive deficit and the treatment of the behavioral disturbances; and developing preventive methods (amyloid p-peptide immunizations and inhibitors of β-secretase and γ-secretase). 4 edition criteria1 and the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke – Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS-ADRDA) criteria and allele is disproportionately represented among patients with both late-onset and early-onset AD and that the allele shows a dose-dependent relationship with increasing risk for AD and decreasing age at onset. Conversely several studies suggested that inheritance of the allele may be protective. There appears to be an increased risk for the sporadic late-onset form of AD with inheritance of one (2.2 to 4.4 higher risk) or two PHA-680632 (5.1 to 17.9 higher risk) copies of the allele on chromosome 19. is a risk factor only its presence is neither necessary nor sufficient for the development of AD. A recent meta-analysis of more than 14 000 patients with AD and controls showed that the allele represents a major risk factor for AD in both men and women from a large number of racial and ethnic groups across all ages between 40 Rabbit polyclonal to TNFRSF1A. and 90 years. The genetic risk of AD attributable to is estimated at 45% to 60%. It appears that does not act by increasing Aβ production but by enhancing Aβ aggregation or decreasing its clearance. Another recently identified putative risk factor is lipoprotein(a) which appears to protect against late-onset AD in noncarriers and is an additional risk factor for late-onset AD in carriers of the allele.6 A series of retrospective studies – part of the EURODBM (European Studies of Dementia) projects – showed that compared with men women had an increased risk for AD while having equal risk for vascular dementia. Women appear to be at higher risk for developing AD only in part due to increased longevity. Because women with AD live longer than men with the disease there are twice as many women as men in the population with this disorder. These studies also showed that low education level significantly increased the risk of AD while family history of dementia and history of head trauma with unconsciousness did not.7 8 At the present time the only well-established risk factors for AD are age and Despite this knowledge at present genotyping is not recommended in asymptomatic individuals with or without a history of AD because of the uncertain predictive value lack of treatment to stop progression of the illness and potential discrimination.9 10 Epidemiology AD can be divided into a familial type and a sporadic type and also into an early-onset type (younger than 65) and a late-onset type (older than 65). The 6-month prevalence of AD in the general population appears to be 5.5% to 9%.11 There prevalence of the disease doubles every 10 years. AD currently afflicts nearly half of the people aged 85 years and older. Individuals with cognitive deficit that do not meet the generally accepted clinical criteria for AD but have a noticeable decrease from prior levels of PHA-680632 cognitive performance with problems in new learning may have mild cognitive impairment. Recent studies show that 40% of these individuals will develop AD within 3 years. Early recognition of AD is important for treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors reduction in caregiver stress community support PHA-680632 delay in institutionalization planning of lifestyle and legal issues. Treatment The goals of treatment are to achieve improvement in.