History F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoP) are oxidant tension biomarkers that are higher in HIV-infected ladies than men. discovered to become higher in individuals with suppressed plasma HIV-1 RNA on Artwork compared to neglected people 9 and among those on treatment higher F2-IsoP amounts have been present in people that have treatment-associated lactic acidosis and lipoatrophy.4 Our group previously examined the association between several clinical elements and plasma F2-IsoP amounts inside a cross-sectional research of HIV-infected adults 10 and in a smaller sized longitudinal analysis from the association between clinical elements and urine F2-IsoP.11 Both research found that feminine making love was independently connected with higher F2-IsoP amounts a link also observed in HIV-uninfected populations.12 13 Determining elements that explain higher F2-IsoP amounts in HIV-infected ladies in comparison to men may lead to a better knowledge of exclusive dangers for HIV-infected ladies and provide assistance in management of the individuals. Glesby et al. analyzed plasma F2-IsoP inside a cross-sectional evaluation inside the Women’s Interagency HIV Research cohort determining homocysteine concentration aswell as hepatitis C pathogen (HCV) infection abdominal obesity and aspartate aminotransferase level as independent predictors of increased plasma F2-IsoP.14 Anemia has been shown to be a predictor of mortality among HIV-infected persons in a wide range of clinical settings independent of markers of disease progression such as CD4+ lymphocyte count and HIV-1 RNA level.15 16 Anemia is also more common in HIV-infected women compared to men 17 and is associated with exposure to the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) zidovudine (AZT). Although anemia has been associated with increased F2-IsoP in HIV-uninfected persons 3 treatment of anemia with intravenous iron 1400W 2HCl sucrose or dextran was associated with an increase in F2-IsoP among HIV-uninfected hemodialysis patients.18 However the effect of endogenous iron may differ from intravenous administration of iron. A trend towards correlation has been shown between iron levels and increased urinary 1400W 2HCl F2-IsoP in healthy postmenopausal women. However this association was not statistically significant.19 The aim of this study was to determine whether hemoglobin (Hgb) level the presence of anemia and serum iron level were associated with increased oxidant stress as measured by F2-IsoP levels. The interaction between Hgb anemia and iron level were separately assessed with sex to evaluate for 1400W 2HCl differences in association with F2-IsoP between HIV-infected men and women. Methods Study population This cross-sectional study enrolled a convenience sample of ambulatory HIV-infected adults from the Comprehensive Care Center (CCC) in Nashville Tennessee from 2003 to 2005. Specific inclusion/exclusion criteria were described in detail elsewhere.10 Participants on ART were all considered adherent based on primary provider opinion but no other adherence assessments were performed. The study was approved by the Vanderbilt Institutional Review Board and all subjects provided written informed consent. Clinical assessments At enrollment blood samples were obtained and study personnel collected demographic and clinical data in a standardized fashion. A questionnaire was administered to assess ART and current antioxidant medication use. Smoking status was self-reported as number of cigarettes per day and categorized as noncurrent smoker current non-heavy smoker (<20 cigarettes/day) or current heavy smoker (≥20 cigarettes/day). Antioxidant make use of was self-reported as usage of any “substitute therapies and/or health supplements including antioxidants” and classified as current make use of or no current make use of. Data on particular real estate agents or dosages weren't collected routinely. Body mass index (BMI) was determined as pounds (kg)/elevation (m)2. Clinical diagnoses of liver organ failure/hepatotoxicity/cirrhosis chronic energetic hepatitis B persistent HCV and coronary artery disease/myocardial infarction had been extracted through the medical record using ICD-9 rules GCPS and regarding chronic HCV lab verification of serologic or virologic proof disease in the medical record. Lab data lab data were obtained by assortment of a bloodstream test in the proper period of research enrollment. 1400W 2HCl Assays for HIV-1 RNA and Compact disc4+ lymphocytes had been performed at a industrial lab (LabCorp Louisville KY). F2-IsoP amounts were.