Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary Info Supplementary information srep09076-s1. sex chromosome in dioecious plants. Sex determination has the intriguing aspect in evolutionary and developmental biology. In contrast to the more completed sex chromosome evolution in animals, sex chromosomes in many plants are still at different evolutionary stages1,2,3,4, and thus afford the opportunity of investigating the early stage of sex chromosome evolution. It is believed that sex chromosomes originate from a pair of autosomes5,6, and the sex-determining systems in dioecious plants almost certainly evolved independently from ancestral hermaphrodites that lacked sex chromosomes2,3. Only about 4% of higher plants show full dioecism, with individuals of separate sexes7,8,9. is a family of dioecious woody vegetation, and the female or male flowers are organized in morphologically different catkins (Shape 1) on the female or male trees10. and so are the sister genera in (Figure 2). Genome evaluation revealed these two lineages comes from a common paleotetrapolyploid ancestor11,12,13. The chromosomes of are usually metacentric and little14,15. Predicated on cytological research, there is absolutely no proof morphologically differentiated sex chromosomes in the species16,17,18. Numerous mechanisms have already been proposed to describe the expression of gender in subgenera21,22 and a centromeric localization in subgenera of genome11,22,27. Mapping research on and result from a common ancestor11,12,13. Since different gender identifying systems most likely evolve individually and quite lately in species of the family, is an appealing system to review the genetics and development of sex chromosomes in dioecious vegetation. Open in another window Figure 1 Bouquets of the feminine and male trees in species.On willow and poplar, the female or male bouquets are separately arranged in morphologically different catkins on the female or male trees. Photos used by Tongming Yin and Jing Hou. Open in another window Figure 2 Phylogenetic tree of chosen plant species.The phylogenetic tree was designed with 1,881 single-copy genes on 4-fold degenerate sites. The Cilengitide reversible enzyme inhibition branch size signifies the neutral divergence price. The posterior probabilities Klf2 (credibility of the topology) for internal nodes are 100%. can be an early flowering shrub willow that belongs to subgenus species, we recognized the sex chromosome in and 0.05). Subsequently, genetic maps had been separately built for the maternal and paternal parents through the use of amplified fragment size polymorphism (AFLP) markers and the pseudo-testcross technique29. Totally, 1,137 1:1 segregating markers had been generated by 90 primer mixtures with the 374 mapping progeny. Among these Cilengitide reversible enzyme inhibition markers, 494 testcross markers from the maternal mother or father had been mapped into 266 bins distributed on 19 linkage organizations, covering a genetic range of 1924.5?cM (Supplementary Figure 1); On the other hand, 549 testcross loci from the male had been assigned into 263 bins on 19 linkage organizations, spanning a genetic range of 2223.8?cM (Supplementary Figure 2). The insurance coverage of the feminine and male maps was approximated to become 99.99% and 99.97% at 20?cM of a marker, respectively. Therefore, the founded maps achieved almost complete genome insurance coverage, with linkage group amounts equaled to the 19 haploid chromosome amounts in willow. Predicated on the founded genetic maps, the gender locus was mapped as a 1:1 segregating morphological marker. Mapping results showed that gender locus could only be mapped on Cilengitide reversible enzyme inhibition the maternal map, but was unmappable on the paternal map, indicating that the female was the heterogametic gender in willow, which was in agreement with the findings in genome sequences. It was found that the linkage group containing the gender locus was chromosome XV in the willow genome (Figure 3a). This chromosome is an autosome in poplars. Thus, the willow’s sex chromosome corresponds to a poplar’s autosome. Previous studies revealed that chromosome XIX was the sex chromosome in poplars21,22,23,24,25,26, by contrast, chromosome XIX was identified as an autosome in willow. Open in a separate window Figure 3 Anchoring the willow sequence scaffolds along each chromosome in the genomes of and were females11,13, we first conducted syntenic analysis between sex chromosomes and the corresponding autosomes in these two lineages based on the willow’s female map. Syntenic analysis revealed high collinearity on chromosome XIX (Figure 4a) and on chromosome XV (Figure 4b) between willow and poplar. In and and (the sequenced poplar species), gender locus was consistently mapped to the peritelomeric region upper the position of SSR marker O_206 (Figure 4a). We subsequently searched the homologous genes.