The overall ratio of BTV antibodies was (9%) using the agar gel immune-precipitation test (AGPT), and the antibodies prevalence in ovine sera was 37%

The overall ratio of BTV antibodies was (9%) using the agar gel immune-precipitation test (AGPT), and the antibodies prevalence in ovine sera was 37%. sheep (45% and 80%) than in goats (37% and 55%) in Giza and Beni-Suef, respectively. Statistical analysis for the three viruses showed the high relation between the two governorates in case of sheep (r=0.85) and in case of goats (r=0.87). In general, a strong positive correlation was observed between the governorates (r=0.93). Conclusion: Giza and Beni-Suef governorates are endemic with FMDV, PPR, and BTV. Regional plan for characterization and combating FMD, PPR, and BT is recommended to help in the achievement of the most suitable combination of the vaccine regimen. strong class=”kwd-title” Keywords: bluetongue, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, foot and mouth disease, goats, Peste des Petits ruminants, sheep Introduction Small ruminants mainly sheep and goats contribute significantly to the economy of farmers in African and Asian countries. Sheep and goats are a source of meat, milk, and wool in addition to their rapid growth and reproduction. Poor man considers goats as cows in developing Arctiin countries [1]. In Egypt, sheep and goats play a dynamic role in the economy of poor, destitute, and landless workers. Many viral diseases attack sheep and goats, namely, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), bluetongue (BT) disease, maedi-visna, orf, tick-borne encephalomyelitis, Peste des Petits ruminants (PPR), sheep pox, and goat pox [2,3]. FMD virus (FMDV) is a positive, single-stranded RNA virus, a member of family Picornaviridae [4,5]. It is a highly transmissible disease of both wildlife and house-trained even-toed animals. More than 65 wild animal species are susceptible to FMD infection [6]. Serologically, seven serotypes of the virus were identified as O, A, Asia 1, C, SAT 1, SAT 2, and SAT 3, and each serotype has multiple subtypes [7]. The PRKM12 viral particles present Arctiin in Arctiin all discharges and secretions of sick animals, so the virus spreads efficiently. Infection occurs through the exposure to the contaminated materials either directly or indirectly [8]. Control of FMD infection is so difficult as the wind can spread the virus for a distance of 10 km [9]. There is no cross-protection against different FMD serotypes [10]. The disease characterized by a low mortality rate (5%) and high morbidity rate (100%) in adult animals. FMD is responsible for the production losses represented by low milk yield and weight loss [11]. FMDV genome is 8.5 kb naked RNA virus, and this genome codes for structural protein (SPs) and non-SPs (NSPs). Although, antibodies against both SPs and NSPs could be detected in infected animals, and antibodies against NSPs are not present in vaccinated not infected animals [12]. Hence, in using kits that can identify antibodies against NSPs, we can differentiate diseased animals from vaccinated Arctiin one [13]. PPR causes discrete financial troubles in sheep and goats farms [14]. PPR virus attacks sheep and goats and leads to pneumoenteritis [15]. PPR virus is a member of genus morbillivirus, Paramyxoviridae [16]. Four lineages (I, II, III, and IV) of PPR virus were identified on sequencing of the fusion (F) protein [17]. Epidemiologically, PPR prevails mainly in Africa and Asia [18]. The PPR viral particles present in all secretions and discharges of the diseased animal [19]. The disease causes high morbidity and mortality rates Arctiin reach to 100% in highly susceptible animals [20]. BT is an infectious arthropod-borne viral disease of sheep and goats. BT virus (BTV) has an RNA genome of double-stranded nature (genus Orbivirus and family Reoviridae) which attacks housetrained and wild ruminants [21]. 24 separate BTV serotypes have been recognized for decades, and all of them can initiate the infection in ruminants. However, two new.