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Calcified aortic valve (AV) cusps have increased expression of bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and transforming growth factor-1 (TGF-1). observed after 3 days on the fibrosa surface of the valve cusp and was stretch magnitude-dependent. Cellular apoptosis was highest at 15% stretch. Tissue calcium content and alkaline phosphatase activity were similarly stretch-dependent and were significantly reduced

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