A limitation of transfection of malaria parasites is the availability of

A limitation of transfection of malaria parasites is the availability of just a low amount of positive selectable markers for collection of transformed mutants. you’ll be able to stably transform four varieties of and two rodent malaria parasites, and [for a review see (1)]. Introduction and integration of foreign DNA into the genome of occurs mainly through homologous recombination and random integration is not frequently observed (1,3). The two rodent malaria parasites cannot be grown in long term cultures and Tyrosol manufacture selection of mutants is therefore carried out in laboratory rodents, which places constraints on the range of selectable markers that can be used. For example, the combination of puromycin and puromycin acetyl transferase that has been used for selection of mutants of and (4,5) Tyrosol manufacture cannot be applied in the rodent parasites as the drug is lethal to laboratory animals. Currently only three drug-selectable markers are available for use with rodent malaria parasites. All are based upon dihydrofolate reductase (or (h(7,8). The availability of a negative selectable marker, in combination with a small number of positive selectable markers, would facilitate a more flexible use of transfection technology in genome (9); (iii) selection of mutants that occur at such low frequency that an unacceptable background of drug-resistant parasites is observed presumably due to the accumulation of mutations that donate resistance in the transfected parasite population (9), a phenomenon that might be enhanced by electroporation (10); (iv) the development of Hit and Run mutagenesis strategies for structure/function analyses; (v) recycling of both the positive and negative selectable markers leaving behind a modified locus, such as: a disrupted gene, an altered gene locus that expresses a modified product or expressing a novel transgene. Recycling would also permit sequential genetic manipulations in a single parasite line using a single positive selectable marker. Here we report an investigation of the application of different negative selection procedures both and to the rodent malaria parasite (9), were tested: from virus (hsv(band (yfor genetic Tyrosol manufacture transformation of where transfection is problematic as a result of low transfection efficiency and low numbers of selectable markers. MATERIALS AND METHODS Construction of vectors The hsvand the ywere introduced in the expression vector pEFexpSSU(EV) (13). This plasmid contains the selectable marker cassette with of RTS (of (promoter upstream of a BamHI restriction site and a fragment of Tyrosol manufacture the gene for targeted integration. A BamHI fragment comprising the open reading frame of hsv(mutant and the yopen reading frames in this expression cassette, we first filled in the BamHI site with dGTP and dATP using Klenow polymerase leaving a CT 3 overhang. A XhoI digested bgene fragment was obtained from plasmid pCMVCODA [a kind gift from Dr C. Karreman (15)] and its cohesive ends were filled in with dTTP and dCTP using Klenow polymerase leaving an AG nucleotide 3 protruding end. Ligation of this fragment in the right orientation into the pEFexpSSU(EV) vector resulted in plasmid pEFbCDSSU. The yopen reading frame was amplified from plasmid pCI-neoFCU1 [a kind gift from Dr P. Erbs (12)] using primers L1504 (5-CTCGAGATGGTGACAGGGGGAATGG-3) and L1505 (5-CTCGAGTTAAACACAGTAGTATCTGTCAC-3), cut with XhoI and the sites were filled in with Klenow as was Tyrosol manufacture done for the bgene fragment. Cloning of the fragment in its correct orientation into the pEFexpSSU(EV) vector resulted in construct pEFyFCUSSU. After linearization at the unique ApaI site, these three constructs can integrate into the locus of the genome by a single crossover event (13). For use of the negative selection strategy for targeted gene disruption and subsequent restoration of the gene fragment in pEFyFCUSSU was changed with a.