As one kind of sounds human being voices are important for language acquisition and human-infant relations. segments) for each condition was required to be included in the analyses. In addition for the voice condition the percentage of sound/silence before the artifact rejection was about 0.21. Therefore artifact-free EEG segment-with-sound/segment-without- sound percentage below 0.21 would be excluded in the analysis. There was no difference between the two conditions in the number of artifact-free EEG segments included in the analysis (Mean = 80.6 SD = 20.8 for the baseline condition Mean = 81.6 SD = 25.6 for the listening-voice condition = .844). In addition there was no difference between the mother’s and stranger’s voices in the number of artifact-free EEG segments (Mean = 22.1 SD = 8.6 for the mother’s voice Mean = 21.7 SD = 9.3 for Droxinostat the stranger’s voice = .578) Droxinostat indicating that there was a relatively 50-50 ratio of the mother’s and stranger’s voices for the voices-condition. The data were re-referenced against the average of all channels. Artifact-free EEG data were then processed in Matlab 7.6 (The Mathworks Inc Natick MA). Power spectral denseness was produced by applying the Matlab control ��pwelch��. It divided the continuous time-domain signal into segments using a 1-second Hanning windowpane with 50% overlap to calculate the amplitude at each rate of recurrence. Averaged power spectral denseness was determined for frontal and temporal scalp areas of both the remaining and right hemispheres: remaining frontal–electrodes 9 11 12 13 and 14 (encompassing F3 in the 10-20 System); right frontal–electrodes 2 3 57 59 and 60 (encompassing F4); remaining temporal– electrodes 24 25 27 30 ideal temporal– 44 45 48 52 (observe Number 1). Spectral power Droxinostat at 6-9 Hz (actually 5.5-9.5 Hz) was computed and then organic log-transformed to normalize the distribution. The EEG alpha asymmetry score (Ln [right] – Ln [remaining]) for two scalp areas was determined. EEG alpha asymmetry scores were submitted to a repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Condition (baseline voice) and Scalp area (frontal temporal) as two within-subject factors. Number 1 (a) The map of the 60-channel HydroCel Geodesic Sensor Online. Electrode groupings used for CMD1 analysis of EEG at frontal and temporal scalp areas are denoted with parallelograms. (b) Mean frontal remaining and ideal hemisphere electrical activity at 6-9 Hz indicated … 3 Results We found main effects of Condition (= 0.016) and Scalp area (= 0.042) indicating that alpha asymmetry scores were different among the scalp areas and between the voice and baseline conditions. In further comparing the alpha asymmetry scores in baseline and voice conditions for each scalp area we found the difference between voice and baseline conditions in the frontal area (= 0.012) but not in the temporal area (> 0.1) indicating the larger frontal alpha asymmetry in the voice condition. Relative remaining frontal alpha asymmetry may be a function of remaining frontal activation or it may be a function of hypoactivation of the right frontal region or both. To disentangle the independent contributions of the remaining and right hemispheres to frontal asymmetries between conditions complete EEG alpha power at frontal areas were submitted to a repeated-measures ANOVA with Droxinostat Condition (baseline voice) and Hemisphere (remaining right) as within subject factors. This analysis yielded a significant Hemisphere main effect (= .001) and a significant Condition �� Hemisphere connection (= .012). Pairwise comparisons exposed that the EEG alpha power Droxinostat was smaller for the left than Droxinostat the ideal hemisphere in the voice condition (= .0002). Although the EEG alpha power also was reduced the remaining than the ideal hemisphere for the baseline condition (= .029) this hemispherical difference was smaller than found in the voice condition (Number 1b). Reduced EEG alpha power shows increased mind activation (Shagass 1972 Consequently these results suggest that human being voices elicited higher relative remaining frontal mind activity compared to the baseline condition. 4 Conversation The present study examined the alpha band EEG asymmetry in 2-month-old babies in.