Health disparities exist among sexual minority older adults. By 2010 only

Health disparities exist among sexual minority older adults. By 2010 only 1 1.23% of older adults responded don’t know/not sure with 1.55% refusing to answer sexual orientation queries. Decisions to not request sexual orientation among older adults must be reconsidered given documented health disparities and rapidly changing social styles in the understanding of varied sexualities. states study on sexual orientation is needed to inform and shape future health initiatives (U.S. Division Troxacitabine (SGX-145) of Troxacitabine (SGX-145) Health and Human being Services 2012 Based on the inclusion of sexual orientation actions in some epidemiologic national health surveys elevated risk of poor mental health is found among young and middle-aged LGB adults (Cochran Mays & Sullivan 2003 higher probability of problematic alcohol usage and drug use among lesbian and bisexual ladies and higher tobacco use among bisexual ladies (Drabble & Trocki 2005 and higher prevalence of obesity among lesbians (Boehmer Bowen & Bauer 2007 In addition there is mounting evidence of mental and physical health disparities among JAZ LGB adults from state-level population-based health surveys. For example LGB adults are at elevated risk of poor health including a greater number of physical health conditions (Boehmer et al. 2007 Cochran & Mays 2007 Dilley Simmons Boysun Pizacani & Stark 2010 practical limitations (Conron Mimiaga & Landers 2010 Fredriksen-Goldsen Kim & Barkan 2012 and mental stress (Cochran & Mays 2007 Dilley et al. 2010 compared to heterosexual adults. Findings growing from state-level population-based studies suggest that many of the health disparities that have been recognized among LGB adults of more youthful age (Conron et al. 2010 persist into middle and older adulthood (Fredriksen-Goldsen Kim Barkan Muraco Troxacitabine (SGX-145) & Hoy-Ellis 2013 Wallace Cochran Durazo & Ford 2011 While the inclusion of sexual orientation actions in public health surveys has offered evidence that young and middle-aged adults respond to sexual orientation questions (Ridolfo Miller & Maitland 2012 VanKim Padilla Lee & Goldstein 2010 to what degree older adults respond to these questions is not yet known. The knowledge of health disparities is vital to inform the development of efficacious interventions to improve health. Yet the field of LGB adult health especially among older adults is usually stymied by the lack of pertinent data collected. In fact most national and state-level health surveys do not inquire sexual orientation measures and among the population-based surveys that include sexual orientation measures many only ask them of young and middle-age adults excluding older adults (Redford & Van Wagenen 2012 For example the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2011) asks about sexual orientation only among those aged 18-59. The National Survey of Family Growth (2012) also includes steps of sexual orientation but the survey is only conducted with adults aged 18-44. Even in state-level health surveys few include sexual orientation steps and among those that do many exclude older adults. The California Health Interview Survey the largest state health survey asks sexual orientation steps to adults but only up to the age of 70 (UCLA Center for Health Troxacitabine (SGX-145) Policy Research 2012 The rationale for not asking older adults sexual orientation identity questions seems to be anchored by several assumptions including that older adults will neither understand nor respond to such steps and that such steps are “too sensitive” for older age-groups. For example in a state-based health Troxacitabine (SGX-145) survey only adults aged 18-64 were asked about sexual orientation steps based on the following rationale: “Surveyors reported that some older respondents seemed confused when asked the sexual orientation measure. A significantly higher percentage of adults aged 65 and older responded ‘don’t know”’ (VanKim et al. 2010 p. 2393). The Williams Institute concludes “surveys that include sexual orientation steps are focused primarily on middle-aged adults” (The Sexual Minority Assessment Research Team 2009 p. 27). Despite the growing evidence that adults respond to sexual.