Objective To evaluate angiographic and clinical results associated with open and closed tunnel dissection endoscopic vein harvesting (EVH) products. EVH, no difference in the per-patient incidence of vein graft failure (43.8% vs. 47.1%; modified odds percentage [OR], 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53 to 1 1.55; p=0.724) or per-graft incidence of vein graft failure (25.5% vs. 25.9%; modified OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.59 to 1 1.55; p=0.847) was observed. At 5 years, no difference was observed in the primary composite clinical end result between open and closed system EVH individuals (21.5% vs. 23.9%; modified hazard percentage, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.66 to 1 1.10; p=0.221). Summary Talmapimod (SCIO-469) supplier No variations in angiographic or medical results were observed among individuals who underwent open vs. EMR2 closed tunnel endoscopic harvesting for coronary bypass surgery. These findings suggest that the risks associated with EVH that were reported inside a earlier PREVENT-IV analysis are not related to Talmapimod (SCIO-469) supplier a specific EVH device. Intro Saphenous vein grafts are the most commonly used conduit in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.  Endoscopic vein harvesting (EVH) was launched like a minimally invasive alternative to traditional open harvesting. Meta-analyses and small randomized studies have shown that endoscopic techniques reduce wound infections, bleeding, post-operative pain, and hospital stay durations. [2C7] Based on these findings, a consensus statement endorsed the use of EVH over traditional harvesting, and by 2008 it was Talmapimod (SCIO-469) supplier used in approximately 70% of individuals undergoing CABG in the United States. [1, 8] In an analysis of the Project of Ex-vivo Vein Graft Executive via Transfection IV (PREVENT-IV) trial, we previously reported that EVH was associated with a higher rate of vein graft failure at 12 to 18 months and long-term mortality.  A secondary analysis of the ROOBY trial similarly reported lower vein graft patency and higher revascularization rates among individuals who underwent EVH.  However, an analysis of Medicare individuals in the Society of Thoracic Cosmetic surgeons National Database reported no relationship between EVH and mortality, and among individuals in the Northern New England Cardiovascular Disease Study, EVH was associated with lower mortality. [10, 11] One possible explanation for these discordant results could be the differential use and results of specific EVH device types, though none of them of these studies were specifically designed to assess the comparative effectiveness and security of vein harvesting techniques. There were two commercially available EVH products used in the PREVENT-IV trial.  The system occludes the access site having a balloon and insufflates the dissection tunnel with up to 15 mmHg of carbon dioxide, whereas an EVH system does not occlude the access site or pressurize the dissection tunnel. It has been hypothesized that a pressurized closed dissection tunnel could lead to intraluminal clot formation by slowing venous graft blood flow.  In addition, in the closed tunnel system the dissector tip is bullet-shaped, allowing for more blunt dissection, vs. the open tunnel system that has a spoon-shaped dissector tip. The lack of EVH device-specific info at the time of the original PREVENT-IV EVH analysis was a recognized limitation insofar as it precluded analyzing whether the observed vein graft failures were associated with specific Talmapimod (SCIO-469) supplier EVH products.  Accordingly, after collecting additional device-specific data, we sought to compare rates of vein graft failure and clinical results in patients undergoing closed tunnel vs. open tunnel EVH for CABG. Methods Patient Population The design and results of the PREVENT-IV (ClinicalTrials.gov quantity, “type”:”clinical-trial”,”attrs”:”text”:”NCT00042081″,”term_id”:”NCT00042081″NCT00042081) trial have been previously described. [12, 15] Briefly, this was a phase III, double blind, multicenter, Talmapimod (SCIO-469) supplier placebo-controlled, randomized trial designed to assess the effects of edifoligide, an E2F transcription element inhibitor, on ex-vivo vein grafts in individuals undergoing CABG. A total of 3014 individuals were enrolled at 107 sites in the United States between 2002 and 2003, and the 1st 2400 were scheduled to undergo follow-up angiography 12 to 18 months after surgery. Individuals aged 18 to 80 years were eligible if they were scheduled to undergo an isolated, 1st CABG surgery with two or.